What Is Low Voltage Cabling & How Does It Work? Full Guide

low voltage wiring

In the world of constant connectivity, businesses and homes need a way to transmit data quickly via phone, audio, and the internet. Cellular and wireless technology have made these things more accessible.

Let us explore the fundamentals of low voltage cabling, its applications, benefits, and considerations for implementation in modern infrastructure projects.

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Everything About Low Voltage Cabling

Low voltage cable (also called structured cabling or network wiring) is a setup of cables and wiring designed to transmit electrical signals at levels typically below 50 volts.

Low voltage wiring consists of twisted pair cables that carry data signals. These low-voltage wires are enclosed in a cable covering to protect them and prevent crosstalk.

Overall, low-voltage cables create an electrical network foundation through which digital technology within a building functions. Low voltage cables are used for telephone communication, internet, garage door opener controls, landscape lighting, and even low voltage lights (low voltage lighting).

How It Works

Low voltage wiring and cabling transmit data and electrical signals at lower voltages than standard electrical wiring. The cable type is commonly used for various applications such as an internet network, telecommunications, security, and audiovisual equipment.

The fiber optic cables are designed to carry low voltage signals efficiently while minimizing signal interference and reducing the risk of electrical hazards.

Safely install structured cabling that consists of twisted pairs of wires, coaxial cables, or fiber optic cables, each tailored to specific needs and environments. Proper installation and configuration ensure reliable data transmission of signals for different devices and systems.

The name suggests how low-voltage wiring differs from high-voltage wiring. Standard power outlets carry high-voltage cabling (120V in the United States and Canada). Most lighting fixtures, cable outlets, electronics, and appliances are in high voltage cabling, drawing up to 120V.

The standard circuits in commercial buildings are high-voltage, but there are circumstances when low-voltage products and devices are better.

Here are a few of those situations:

Telephone: Many businesses still rely on wired phone systems connected to low-voltage wiring. Businesses need quick connectivity between multiple floors and departments; low-voltage wire can facilitate that. Fiber optic cabling or ethernet cable is traditionally used for telephone communication.

Cable Television: Many organizations like restaurants, offices with multiple meeting rooms, and hospitals subscribe to cable TV across multiple screens. Video delivery services are provided with coaxial or fiber optic cable.

Audio: Intercom systems, security camera speakers, and surround sound are a few reasons businesses may need audio capabilities. Speakers can be put in any room with coaxial and speaker wires.

Security And Surveillance: All businesses want to protect their employees and property. They can either use wireless cameras or a wired surveillance system. Wireless security cameras may be more convenient, but large buildings (vertically or horizontally) may have range issues with wireless. Surveillance uses Cat6 cabling for IP, network, and analog cameras.

Computers: Companies utilize data cables and networks for various tasks, including communicating with people, devices, and IP management. Behind most computers, you’ll find Cat5, 6, or 7 network cables connected with an RJ45. 

Remember that none of these power infrastructural technologies require low-voltage wiring. However, in most cases (when the infrastructure allows it), low-voltage wiring is superior.

Benefits of Low Voltage Wiring

Wireless networks are getting faster every year, but they still can’t compete with the speed and coverage of low-voltage wiring.

Those aren’t the only benefits of low-voltage wiring.

Here are a few more:

  • Low voltage wiring is more energy efficient because it never draws more than 50V of power.
  • Low voltage wiring is scalable and more streamlined when installed in a structured cabling system managed with patch panels.
  • Low-voltage wiring can be customized to fit the needs of any business or organization.
  • Lower risk of electrocution and severe bodily harm.

Also, find out the Best Structured Cabling Companies.

Types Of Low Voltage Cables

Low Voltage Cable

Cable is the medium through which information and data move from a separate network device to another. More than a few types of low-voltage cables are used in LANs.

Cat5 & Cat5e

Cat5e, the current industry standard for unshielded twisted-pair cabling (UTP), can support up to 100/1,000 Megabits (Mbps) at 350 Hz bandwidth. Cat5 and Cat5e Ethernet cables are unshielded and used to carry video and telephone signals. These cables connect computers, VoIP phones, computer networks, automation networks, video/audio, and more.


Cat5 and Cat6 may seem the same, but they differ simply because Cat6 is the new and improved version of Cat5. Cat6 has more twists per cm than Cat5, supporting faster data transfer. They are also better at limiting crosstalk and system noise, which is beneficial since most low-voltage wires exist alongside many other electrical wires originating in the exact location.


A coaxial cable is a cable used to transmit internet, video, television, and voice data. It’s made of aluminum, copper, and an outer plastic jacket, providing protection from electromagnetic interference. The copper core allows the coaxial cable to transmit information over long distances.

Fun fact: Coaxial cable was one of the first cables used as ethernet cable, although it no longer serves that purpose.


C-wire or standard wire connects low-voltage heating systems to thermostats carrying continuous power. Most newer HVAC systems have C-wires with double shield or quad shield, making them compatible with smart thermostats.


What factors should I consider when selecting low-voltage cabling for my project? 

When selecting low-voltage cabling for your project, it’s crucial to consider factors such as compatibility with your systems, the capacity to handle your expected data or power loads, and the durability of the cables to withstand environmental conditions and usage demands.

Correct cabling is important because it is more delicate than a standard wiring network. If the structured wiring system is installed correctly,

Can low-voltage cabling be used for both residential and commercial applications?

Low-voltage cabling is highly versatile and suitable for various applications, including residential, a multifamily apartment complex, multiple facilities, data centers, or business settings.

Low voltage installation offers flexibility and efficiency to meet diverse needs, whether for home networking, office telecommunications, security systems with two or four conductors, or industrial automation.

Final Thoughts

Businesses that need fast communication between devices can benefit from low-voltage wiring. By facilitating the power transmission of electrical signals below 50 volts, low voltage cable enables the seamless operation of various devices and systems, ranging from telecommunications networks to security and automation systems. 

Upgrade your connectivity today with our professional low-voltage cabling services! Whether you need to enhance your separate low-voltage network, improve security systems, or optimize low-voltage setups, The Network Installers can be your trusted partner.

Our experienced technicians ensure seamless installation and reliable performance for all your low-voltage needs.

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About Us
The Network Installers is a low voltage electrical contractor that provides data cabling, network installation, fiberoptic installation, and WIFI installation. We've been serving commercial customers since 2008 with exceptional quality, consistency, and professionalism.


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